Accelo vs GanttPRO: 2024 Comparison

Accelo and GanttPRO are two of the most popular project management tools available today.

But how do they stack up against each other?

Which one manages tasks better?
Which one helps you allocate resources more effectively?
Which one is more affordable?

Discover all the answers in our detailed comparison guide.

A. Project and Task Management

Get. Things. Done. 

You and every project manager likely live by those words.

It’s also the heart and soul of any project management software. 

This is why, before anything else, you must evaluate a tool’s ability to help you manage your tasks and projects.

Features to look out for:

  • Project structure: A simple, intuitive way to organize work and toggle through multiple projects, tasks, boards, etc. 
  • Views: Board, list, timeline, Gantt, and other types of views that let you visualize various types of information within each project.
  • Tasks & subtasks: Dedicated spaces offering the ability to drill down to the smallest level of actionable detail about each project item. 
  • Statuses: Effortless ways to communicate the exact progress of each task, board, project, etc.
  • Checklists: Quick to-do lists for each task so things don’t fall through the cracks 
  • Task templates: Easy-to-copy templates to create identical tasks at scale across multiple projects. 
  • Assignees: The ability to assign tasks, boards, or projects to individual team members, groups, or even teams. 
  • Priorities: A way to communicate the urgency level of each task, subtask, or project. 
  • Automations: Trigger-based (if X happens then do Y); ways to automate repetitive actions such as notifications, comments, status updates, etc.

1. Project Structure / Hierarchy

a. Accelo

Accelo helps you organize your projects with a straightforward structure:

Company > Project > Milestone > Task > Checklists

  • Company: A company or client page set up on your Accelo account.
  • Projects: Long-term work that needs to be completed by or for a Company.
  • Milestones: Different stages or phases of a Project, which can have separate budgets. 
  • Tasks: Actionable work items required to achieve Milestones.
  • Checklists: Granular action items required to complete a Task.

b. GanttPRO

Organize your workspace with the help of an easy-to-understand Hierarchy. 

Project portfolio > Project > Mileston > Task > Subtasks

  • Project portfolio: All projects are displayed on the same screen to give you a complete overview of all work in one glance.
  • Project: A sequence of tasks headed towards the same goal.
  • Milestone: Key, zero-duration events in a project’s lifecycle, showcased as diamonds.
  • Task: Specific to-dos that lead up to a milestone and comprise a project.
  • Subtask: Smaller to-dos that need to be completed in order to complete a task. 

2. Views

a. Accelo

Accelo allows you to see your Tasks with these views:

  • Project View: This screen displays all Milestones and Tasks within a Project with details of Assignees, Planned Due, Status, etc.
  • Milestone View: Displays an overview of all Tasks within a Milestone. The Tasks can be arranged based on Status, Earned Value, Budget, or Start and Due Dates. You can also shift Tasks within your workflow by dragging and dropping them on a Kanban-style board.
  • Project Schedule: Access a Gantt-style overview of your Projects’ Milestones and Tasks for Project planning.
  • My Schedule: See all your assigned Tasks based on a calendar view.
  • Deadlines Task Board: Displays the Tasks you need to do based on deadlines. You can drag and drop Tasks to change deadlines.
  • Status Task Board: Allows a user to see all Tasks they have created or that have been assigned to them. It lets you drag and drop Tasks to change their Status.
  • Assignment Task Board: Shows a manager all the Tasks they have created or are managing. It simplifies the process of assigning Tasks.

b. GanttPRO

While a Gantt chart is its default view, GanttPRO lets you work with four more views. These are:

  • List: A table format displaying all tasks one after the other. 
  • Board: A Kanban-board-style representation of tasks categorized by their current statuses.
  • Portfolio: Make top-level changes across all projects in a single view. 
  • Dashboard: Add widgets to display key project metrics and other information. 
  • Gantt: A detailed timeline view containing all task details, such as deadlines, assignees, milestones, and more, to help you track project progress. 

3. Tasks & Subtasks

a. Accelo

Accelo lets you create Tasks under Milestones or Projects to keep track of important actionable items.

Although you cannot add any subtasks, you can add these details to provide context to your Tasks: 

  • Task Title
  • Task Status
  • People
  • Task Description
  • Dates
  • Priority

b. GanttPRO

Tasks in GanttPRO are steps to be completed as part of the whole project. You can set up the following four levels of tasks:

  • Summary tasks: A small group of tasks that forms a phase
  • Tasks: Stand-alone to-dos within the project
  • Subtasks: A smaller version of the task that leads to the completion of the summary task.
  • Milestones: A zero-duration task that marks a significant event in the project lifecycle.

But there’s more. You can break your tasks down into 16 levels. Each time you create a new level, the parent task turns into a summary task. GanttPRO automatically generates a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that indicates this hierarchy in appropriate bulleting. 

4. Statuses

a. Accelo

Accelo lets you assign and change your Task Status to indicate its progress in your workflow. The default Statuses include Unassigned, Pending, Accepted, Started, and Completed.

You can also create new or custom Statuses.

b. GanttPRO

You can assign project statuses to indicate their exact position. 

The default statuses in GanttPRO are No status (cannot be deleted), On track, At risk, and Off track. You can edit their names and colors and even create new statuses.

Additionally, you can set one of the following default statuses for tasks: 

  • Open
  • In Progress
  • Done
  • Closed

Moving the status changes the progress percentage in the Progress field of a task, too. 

Use the Custom fields functionality to add and edit these statuses. 

5. Checklists

a. Accelo

Accelo lets you add Checklists for to-do items within a Task. Assignees can tick Checklist items to indicate their completion.

b. GanttPRO

GanttPRO doesn’t offer any native checklists.

6. Task Templates

a. Accelo

Accelo’s standard Task Template helps you assign work and provide context to aid your Project workflow. 

This template can be configured to include additional details. However, by default, it contains:

  • Task Title
  • Task Description
  • Task Status
  • Assignee
  • Manager
  • Creator
  • Checklist
  • Task Time
  • Task Rate
  • Start and Due Dates
  • Skills
  • Tags
  • Priority
  • Attachments

b. GanttPRO

In GanttPRO, you can create a project from scratch, add a bunch of tasks to it, add milestones and dependencies, and save it as a reusable template. The next time you use a self-created or GanttPRO’s default template, you can access the task template it contains too.

However, GanttPRO doesn’t let you create templates just for tasks.

7. Assignees

a. Accelo

Accelo lets you assign Projects, Milestones, and Tasks to people on your team. Projects and Milestones can be assigned to managers, while Tasks can be assigned to both managers and team members.

b. GanttPRO

Once you add them to a project, you can assign tasks to people or virtual resources in GanttPRO. Virtual resources are either external teams, their members, or physical resources (for ex: materials) that can be added to your projects.

Here are ways you can assign tasks in GanttPRO:

  • Use the standard Assigned field in a task
  • Use task settings to Add assignee
  • Assign tasks in the My tasks tab
  • Draw the task bar and drop it to the required resource or person

8. Priorities

a. Accelo

You can set Task Priorities to Critical, High, Normal, Low, or None on Accelo. Each level has a corresponding icon based on its urgency.

You can edit the Priority names but can’t create custom ones or modify the icons.

b. GanttPRO

Choose between any of GanttPRO’s five default Priority levels for any task: Highest, High, Medium, Low, and Lowest. 

9. Automations

a. Accelo

Accelo allows you to automate certain business and Project processes to save time for more important work. You can set up automations based on Triggers, Rules, and Actions.

b. GanttPRO

GanttPRO doesn’t offer any native automations.

B. Time Management

Time is money for a reason. 

The right software can be the difference between pinching pennies and raking in the big bucks.

Effective project management software offers effortless time management features to help you befriend the clock. 

With the right one, expect to keep all your tasks running as scheduled and meet your deadlines with ease. 

Features to look out for include:

  • Due dates: Communicate expected delivery dates.  
  • Time estimates: Make capacity decisions based on how much time each task or project is expected to take. 
  • Time tracking: Measure productivity with accurate time consumption data for each team member. 

1. Due Dates

a. Accelo

Maintain deadlines for Project deliverables by adding Start and Due Dates on Accelo.

You can add or modify these dates while creating or editing Tasks. They can also be modified from your Project Schedule.

b. GanttPRO

Set a date on any GanttPRO task by:

  • Picking a date on the calendar
  • Typing it in manually

2. Time Estimates

a. Accelo

Accelo lets you add a Time Budget to Tasks. Once an Assignee has finished a Task, you can compare the estimated time vs the actual time taken.

b. GanttPRO

GanttPRO gives you the option to set the following for each task:

  • Estimation: The number of hours a task should be completed in 
  • Duration: The time span (number of days) that a task should be completed in

You may set one or both of these. Using this data, GanttPRO will automatically calculate by what date and time the assigned resource(s) should complete the task and set the due date accordingly. 

3. Time Tracking

a. Accelo

You can use Accelo’s in-built Timer to track how long you work on a Task. The timer starts automatically by default when you start an Activity. However, you can pause, resume, and stop the Timer at any time or manually log time using the Time Log button. 

And if you’re working on different Tasks, the app will automatically start tracking time for both and switch between Timers as you move between Tasks.

b. GanttPRO

Log time on GanttPRO using any one of the following three ways:

  • Manually enter time in a task’s time log
  • Start the automatic timer on each task window when you work on it
  • Add your time in My time log (containing a list of all your tasks) in the left sidebar

C. Reporting

What you can’t measure, you can’t improve. 

Reporting and analytics features can help you track real-time progress, monitor key metrics, and sniff out bottlenecks like a detective.  

Armed with these insights, your team can stay ahead of the curve no matter the situation. 

Expect better resource management, superior deadline compliance, and a more focused and decisive team.

Features to look out for include:

  • Goals and milestones: Record targets for the whole team to see and work towards.
  • Dashboards: Visualize data from all corners of the team into a user-friendly, interactive interface.
  • Gantt charts: Keep your plans flexible with Gantt charts that allow you to adjust timelines based on changing resource availability and task completion ratio. 

1. Goals & Milestones

a. Accelo

Accelo’s Milestones are overarching agendas within a Project. For example, a testing stage for a product release. The stage can be classified as a Milestone and has several Tasks under it that need to be completed. 

However, the tool doesn’t have a distinct feature for setting goals.

b. GanttPRO

GanttPRO offers no dedicated features to set and track project goals.

However, you can set milestones as important events on your project timeline. These milestones — displayed as diamonds — can easily be spotted on the Gantt chart.

2. Dashboards

a. Accelo

Here’s a list of some of the many Dashboards that Accelo offers:

  • Schedule Dashboard
  • Utilization Dashboard
  • Profitability Dashboard
  • User Dashboard
  • Manager Dashboard
  • Company Dashboard
  • Sale Dashboard
  • Project Dashboard
  • Ticket Dashboard

These Dashboards provide you with a quick, accurate overview of different aspects around Project and Task management. It lets you oversee progress, planning, and profitability.

b. GanttPRO

Use GanttPRO’s Dashboard tab to get a quick overview of key project data, such as:

  • Performance against baselines
  • Risks and opportunities
  • Budgets
  • Schedules and delivery, etc.

By default, the Dashboard tab contains the following widgets:

  • Project info & description 
  • A bar chart with Time spent on tasks
  • A bar chart and a table with Milestones
  • A bar chart with a Schedule
  • A bar chart with Costs
  • A pie chart with Task status

3. Gantt Charts

a. Accelo

Accelo’s Gantt charts allow you to: 

  • View Milestones and Tasks based on their durations and dependencies.
  • Click and drag to link Milestones or Tasks and create dependencies.
  • Collapse or expand Milestones to hide/view Tasks. 
  • Drag Milestone bars to extend or reduce durations for project planning.

 

b. GanttPRO

As one of its central features, GanttPRO offers immense customizability in its Gantt charts.

For instance, you can:

  • Add a Today marker line on the chart to indicate the current date when planning
  • Customize how the chart looks using the Skin mode
  • Format the chart to add indents and outdents and improve visibility
  • Show people’s Avatar on the chart to easily spot assigned tasks

D. User Management

Software, features, and other tech things aside, the real heroes of any project are your team members. So make sure to pick the kind of project management software that puts them front and center!

How do you do this?

Look for software that knows what different team members need and helps you deliver the right experience. 

Features to look out for include:

  • User groups: Create internal teams representing various departments, functions, or projects. 
  • Permission levels: Grant different access levels depending on the users’ information requirements and the company’s security concerns. 
  • Guest users: Invite team members from other companies/teams to collaborate with your team without compromising on confidential data. 

1. User Groups

a. Accelo

You can create custom User Groups in Accelo with specific permission levels for the whole group. 

This lets you categorize your team and bulk assign access levels, helping you to easily sort users and control their access to different Accelo modules.

b. GanttPRO

The People tab in GanttPRO lets you see all the people invited to be members of a particular project. The Project Owner can then add or delete team members as needed and even edit their permissions. 

2. Permission Levels

a. Accelo

Accelo offers comprehensive permission levels, including view, edit, assign, delete, plan, admin, and more, across three different access levels for users: 

  • Administrators have full access
  • Professionals are standard users who can log time and manage work
  • Contractors are limited roles that can only log time 

You can also choose to give members access based on their roles within specific teams on Accelo (for example, Company, Sale, Projects, etc.).

b. GanttPRO

All GanttPRO plans let you set up the following default types of account types:

  • Account Owner: Can manage the subscription and other key account-level functionality
  • Account Admin: Have project-specific permissions that don’t extend to adding/deleting users or to other projects they’re not in charge of
  • Account Member: Have limited access to the projects they’re invited to — as set up by Account Ownder and Admin

Besides these, an Account Owner using an Enterprise plan can create a Custom role with a completely unique set of permissions. 

3. Guest Users

a. Accelo

Accelo doesn’t have a distinct feature to add guest users. However, you can add users with temporary access by assigning Contractor roles. 

You can also add client users via the Client Portal.

b. GanttPRO

GanttPRO doesn’t offer a dedicated feature for onboarding guest users.

However, one can use one of the two following methods to invite guest users:

  • Create Account Member seats with limited project access
  • Enterprise plan customers can create Custom user roles

E. Collaboration

In project management, collaboration and communication are like a ballroom dance — if everyone isn’t in sync, you’re just stepping on each other’s toes!

A project manager should encourage their team to be on the same page regarding everything happening on the project. This could involve regular meetings, periodic status updates, shared checklists, etc. 

But things can get tricky when you add different team structures (remote, hybrid, distributed, etc.). 

The trick is to balance ‘informing everyone’ with ‘over-communicating.’ 

The solution is to forge a shared space where the whole team can contribute without hampering individual productivity. Picking a suitable project management software is the first step toward achieving this goal. 

Features to look for include: 

  • Comments: Simple ways to send feedback or discuss a task or project. 
  • Threads: Keep all relevant comments in a single thread. 
  • Tagging/@mention: Mention a team member on a task, in comments, or in any shared space to notify them. 
  • Sharing tasks: Share tasks with relevant team members for efficient collaboration.
  • File management: Attach and store files, create and annotate documents, etc., for ready access to project documentation. 
  • Notifications: Customize how team members receive notifications.

1. Comments, Threads, & Tagging

a. Accelo

Accelo doesn’t let you comment directly on Tasks. However, you can add replies to Activities in Message Streams.

An Activity is any work correspondence done for a Task, like sending an email, scheduling a meeting, or creating an Internal Note for your team. These Activities are logged in a Message Stream within a Project or Milestone.

Team members and clients can add in-line replies or comments in response to an Activity in the Message Stream.

b. GanttPRO

You can access task comments using one of the following methods:

  • The comment icon on a task
  • An Activity feed that shows a timeline of all project activities
  • Your personal Communication hub

GanttPRO’s Communication hub shows you people’s comments from across all their projects, mentioned under respective tasks. This saves you the time of having to browse every project space for the latest updates. 

Moreover, GanttPRO organizes comments into read and unread stacks.

Users can tag each other and send important project updates via these comments.  

2. File Management

a. Accelo

Attach files like PDFs and images to Tasks or email exchanges with your team or clients. 

You can also search for attachments or files from your Accelo Dashboard and upload files from integrated services like Dropbox or Google Drive.

b. GanttPRO

Drag and drop or upload files directly onto tasks on GanttPRO with ease. You can keep track of all task attachments in a single space below the comments section.  

3. Notifications

a. Accelo

Stay on track with Task updates with email notifications for Task or Activity creation, Status updates, Expense submission, etc.

You’ll only receive email notifications based on your preconfigured settings.

b. GanttPRO

To stay on top of all project updates, GanttPRO users can receive:

  • Activity feed notifications (in-app) that are by default sorted by date. These cannot be deactivated.
  • Email notifications
  • Push notifications that must be activated for the app and browser.

You can customize how you receive email and push notifications in your settings.

F. Customer Support

Individual users in smaller teams often face a steep learning curve with most project management software. 

In their case, having access to responsive support executives and a wealth of helpful resources can make a significant difference, turning a frustrating experience into a positive one.

However, customer support is just as crucial for larger teams. 

Even if these teams initially received thorough onboarding and training, their needs and use cases tend to evolve over time. Continuous and adaptable customer support becomes essential to address these changing needs effectively.

With adequate customer support, you can:

  • Derive maximum value from the app with the help of professional guidance whenever required
  • Ensure your team is making full use of all the features you’re paying for
  • Learn from case studies of other teams using the same software
  • Expand your use cases with time
  • Learn about the features your team uses the most and avoid spending on those you don’t need
  • Solve minor issues on your end by going through help resources
  • Get hands-on support when you get stuck
  • Keep a record of all your complaints and feedback for the platform to aid future buying decisions
  • Send feedback to the app’s developers so they can design the features you most desire

Features to look for include: 

  • Detailed knowledge bases and documentation to aid DIY solutions to common issues
  • Case studies, templates, guides, and other resources
  • Easy access to resources for all types of users — free or paid
  • Async support executives to cover for the time difference
  • Live agents who can respond via chat or phone 
  • Screenshots and recordings to display how the tool works
  • Translations to resources in other languages, if needed

Accelo

  • Webinars: Recordings of training sessions and interviews around using Accelo
  • Video tutorials: Brief video walkthroughs on navigating Accelo products
  • Help Guides and FAQs: Guides and answers on everything you need to know about using the tool
  • Community: A space to share ideas, learn, and ask questions to other Accelo users
  • Professional service: Consultative services for building workflows, configuring platforms, train your team to use Accelo
  • Customer support: Email, Phone

GanttPRO

  • Learning center: Help portal with detailed documentation on all GanttPRO features
  • Video tutorials: A YouTube channel with walkthrough videos on how the platform works
  • Customer Stories: Case studies from GanttPRO customers to demonstrate the software’s successful deployment
  • Blog: Writings on project management, productivity, remote work, and more
  • Customer support: Live chat, email

G. Platforms Supported

Distributed and field teams might not always be armed with laptops or computers. 

But that doesn’t mean productivity has to stop.

With a mobile-friendly project management tool, the workflow keeps humming along, turning those smartphones into mighty workflow tools.

More reason to look into this?

If your company follows a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) approach, your team members need the freedom to switch between various devices. 

With support for all types of apps, you can:

  • Ensure uniform access irrespective of device type
  • Save on the cost of buying the same types of devices for the whole team
  • Give all team members a chance to log work from anywhere, anytime

Features to look for include: 

  • App support for the latest Mac, Windows, iOS, and Android versions.
  • Maximum coverage for all key features across devices

Accelo

  • Browser: Chrome, Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Safari 
  • Desktop: Mac, Windows, Linux
  • Mobile: iOS, Android

GanttPRO

  • Browser: Google Chrome, Opera, Safari, or Firefox (recommended)
  • Desktop: Windows
  • Mobile: iOS, Android

H. Pricing

Whether you have deep pockets or shoestring budgets, there’s project management software out there for every kind of organization. 

But the confusing combination of features and numbers on pricing pages can make it difficult to choose. 

Here are some easy tips for starters.

If you plan on buying the software subscription for just yourself or a small team that’s not likely to grow rapidly anytime soon — stick to the free plan as long as possible. Or pick the cheapest monthly subscription possible. These should cover most of your feature requirements comfortably in most cases. 

However, if you expect to hire rapidly and grow to a sizable number, go for a plan that grows with you — ideally with a per-user rate that doesn’t add up exponentially. 

Finally, most software offers flexible enterprise plans that let you cherry-pick your favorite features into a custom package. If you’re part of such a team, it’s best to contact the sales team and get the best deal possible. 

Accelo Pricing

Accelo has the following pricing plans:

  • Free Trial: Try Accelo with full access for 7 days. No credit card required. 
  • Professional ($50/user/month): Client Project Management, Sales Management, Quote Management, Time Logs, Timers, Timesheets, Invoices, Payments, Financial Insight Dashboards
  • Business ($70/user/month): Everything in Professional plus Client Retainer Management, Ticket Management, Shared Request Inbox, Expenses & Materials, Time Approvals for Billing, Unlimited Client Portal Users.
  • Advanced ($90/user/month): Everything in Business plus Advanced Custom Workflows, Advanced Triggers & Automation, Smart Scheduling & Utilization, Adaptive Project Scheduling, Client Asset Management, and 3 Advanced Reporting Users.
  • Elite (Contact for pricing): Everything In Advanced plus Role-Based Users from $39/month, Divisions Module, Unlimited Collaborator Users, SAML / Enterprise SSO, Premium Support with SLAs, Dedicated Account Manager.

GanttPRO Pricing

GanttPRO offers a 14-day full-feature free trial plan, after which you can choose from any of the following pricing plans for a team of five and above:

  • Basic ($7.99 per user/month): All core feature such as Gantt charts, project calendar, auto scheduling, and virtual resources.
  • Pro (12.99 per user/month): Core features + advanced planning tools such as overdue tasks, custom fields and filters, calendar exceptions, and custom project templates. 
  • Business ($19.99 user/month): Everything in Pro + workload management, portfolios and reports, budget planning, and time tracking.
  • Enterprise (price on request): Everything in Business + SAML Single sign-on, custom roles and rights, enterprise onboarding assistance, and priority support

I. Best Suited To

Picking the right project management tool is like finding the perfect pair of shoes. They must be a snug fit but also leave you some wiggle room to get comfortable! 

In other words, the tool you pick must fit all your current needs and grow alongside your future requirements, too. 

So make sure you’ve covered all bases in your research when picking project management software for your team. 

One way to do this is to check what types of teams your choice serves best. 

For instance, what works for a small software development team might not suit a large marketing agency. 

When hunting for a PM solution, it’s vital to match the tool’s features and use cases with your team’s workflow. Tailor your search to find a tool with all the necessary features to manage your tasks and boost productivity.

Accelo Verdict

Packed with various features for project management, client management, sales, and more, Accelo is well-suited for large-scale businesses and enterprises. It helps manage the diverse aspects of running a business without needing multiple tools.

But is it the best choice for you?

Accelo’s extensive feature set is easy to understand and use. The segregation of Projects by Company and the distribution of Tasks within Milestones lets you create a clean breakdown of your work. 

Its Project Schedule view provides an excellent overview of Task dependencies. Project managers can even add separate time and monetary budgets to each Milestone to ensure overall profitability. But the tool isn’t perfect.

Accelo’s broad offerings come at the cost of basic project management features. For example, you can’t break down Tasks into Subtasks. This can lead to your team losing focus on the subcomponents of a Task.

Moreover, it isn’t easy to communicate about Tasks on Accelo. Users need to send emails or add Internal Notes since they can’t add comments to Tasks. You also can’t customize Priority labels or set goals.

Another prominent issue is its lack of a free plan. The pricing (starting at $50/user) is also much higher than other tools in this niche. This makes it less suitable for solopreneurs, small businesses, and startups. 

Still, Accelo can be a viable choice if you require a broad solution with excellent customer service to manage diverse needs.

GanttPRO Verdict

GanttPRO makes a solid case for Gantt chart-focused project management. 

Its comprehensive project management core features nearly cover all bases for a team with basic requirements. This includes a feature-rich Gantt chart view with every kind of customization imaginable and automatic timeline calculation. 

Then there’s the detailed ask planning that lets you split your work breakdown structure (WBS) into 16 levels!

Moreover, you can plan for not just human but also virtual resources such as material and external labor. Such diverse functionality makes GanttPRO a PM tool of choice for all kinds of teams — from software developers to construction companies. 

The flip side?

A lack of a free plan (with paid plans starting at $7.99 per user/month) makes GanttPRO inaccessible to many. And even with a Pro subscription, you will not have access to project management staples, such as:

  • Time tracking
  • Custom project templates
  • Overdue tasks
  • Custom user roles

Finally, GanttPRO gives you a minimal — yet capable — mobile app for Android and iOS, but skips adding a Mac desktop app to the bag.

All in all, this project management tool has some ground to cover before it becomes a top-tier PM tool. But if you’re willing to pay and sure about what you need, GanttPRO might just be what you’re looking for.