34+ Key Marketing Metrics + How to Choose The Right Ones

Unlock key marketing metrics and find out what to know about your business before you start measuring.

Key Marketing Metrics

34+ Key Marketing Metrics + How to Choose The Right Ones

Choosing which marketing metrics to track can seem like an easy task on the surface.

Unfortunately, because there are so many different metrics, settling on a few can be incredibly difficult.

And it doesn’t get easier. 
If you’re tracking the wrong metrics, you’re doing more harm than good. 

Thankfully, a little bit of guidance can go a long way in laying the groundwork for a healthy tracking mechanism. 

That’s where this article can help you. 

We’ll help you by answering the ‘why-what-how’ of the process and then assist you in picking from our list of 34 foundational marketing metrics.

This Article Contains

Answer These 3 Questions Before Tracking Marketing Metrics

Just because you can measure it doesn’t mean you should. 

So before you make a laundry list of marketing metrics to track, make another list — of answers to these questions:

1. What are the desired outcomes of your marketing strategy?

Like with all the big things, start with the why for this, too. 

Why should you track marketing metrics to begin with?
The answer is pretty much the same across the board — because you want to measure outcomes to improve them. 

Which brings us to ‘what’ outcomes. For instance, are you:

  • Wondering about the absolute ROI of all marketing expenditures for internal audits? 
  • Looking to present your social media engagement numbers to potential sponsors?

Followed by questions about ‘who’ will look at the metrics and:

  • Who will look at the metrics? 
  • What information do they need? 
  • What positive scenarios are you hoping to discover or negative scenarios are you hoping to avoid by measuring these metrics?

In essence, the answer to this first question on our list for you is, well…more questions!

Fortunately, asking these questions will only bring you closer to your answer. 

2. What broad framework dictates the metrics you choose to measure?

To answer this, look at your internal process. 

  • What channels will your marketing metrics cover?
  • How often will you gather and analyze their results?
  • Can they cover various stages of a customer’s journey with your product or service?
  • Or should they correspond to the stages in your sales pipeline?

Here’s why you need to ask these questions.

Let’s say you use several channels but have a single product focus. In this scenario, you need to evaluate which channel is best, so it makes sense to group metrics by channel and analyze them periodically. 

3. What do you want to do with the results of your marketing metrics?

Marketing is like 3D chess. 
Metrics tell you whether your next move should be a bold steeple jump or a measured hop to the next square. 

However, if your data is just empty numbers to you, you’d be as lost with them as you were without them. 

For example, it makes no sense to measure the number of clicks on Google Ads when you barely spend anything there, and organic traffic from your blog is what generates most of the clicks.

So, all those big, fancy-sounding metrics that have nothing to do with your marketing core? They go right out of the window!

Ultimately, don’t let any one thing (or person) dominate your choice of marketing metrics. Use your experience, research, and intuition to answer these questions first. 

And when you’re ready, dive into this power list of 34 marketing metrics.

34 Essential Marketing Metrics to Track 

Let’s now go over the key metrics available for each step of the marketing process:

A. Acquisition Metrics

Let’s start with the one goal most marketing activities share — customer acquisition. 

1. Cost Per Lead (CPL)

CPL measures the cost of acquiring each lead by averaging the spending on lead generation campaigns, PPC ads, lead magnets, etc., across the total number of leads. 

How to Calculate CPL

Cost Per Lead = Cost Incurred to Generate Leads / Number of Leads Generated

CPL puts a dollar value on each lead and incentivizes your marketing team to design leaner, more efficient lead-generation strategies.

However, a lower CPL doesn’t automatically translate to a better marketing ROI if the leads aren’t promising enough to lead to conversions.

But there’s more. 

Even if your lead gen campaign brings you super high-quality leads, if the CPL is tipping out of balance, it may not be sustainable. 

2. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

This is the cost incurred by your business to acquire a new customer. It includes all the marketing and sales spending (including commissions, bonuses, and other costs) that has gone into going after new customers. 

How to Calculate CAC

Customer Acquisition Cost = Total Marketing and Sales Spend / Number of Customers Acquired

A key difference between this metric and CPL is that it only considers fully converted customers. This includes people who’ve signed up for your paid plan, purchased your product, etc. On the other hand, CPL only calculates the cost for every lead that can potentially convert into a customer.  

But just like CPL, every business wants its CAC to be as low as possible. 

However, it’s perfectly reasonable for your business to have a high CAC if your Average Order Value (AOV) or Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) is on the higher end. 

For example, for a B2B SaaS product with an annual enterprise subscription of up to $1000 and above, the CAC can touch the high hundreds or more.

In general, a CAC:CLV ratio of 1:3 is considered sustainable.

B. Conversion Metrics

There’s more to conversions than just how many customers pay for your product. Read on to discover how to improve your pipeline’s efficiency by calculating conversions at every stage. 

3. Conversion Rate

Conversion rate is the percentage of people who take any desired action at a specific point in the pipeline. This could include signing up for a newsletter, clicking a link on social media, paying for a subscription, etc. 

Your business can adapt the formula to calculate conversions on any channel or funnel stage.

How to Calculate Conversion Rate

Conversion Rate = Number of People Who Took the Desired Outcome / Number of People Targeted * 100

This marketing metric is a reliable indicator of your channel’s health. For instance, if the conversion rate on your email campaign has been consistently low, it might be time to revisit the time and resources invested in this channel. 

A word of caution, though — don’t take your numbers at face value. Sometimes, a low conversion rate may reflect an incorrect definition of ‘conversion’ or is simply a glitch.

To expand on the email example, maybe your conversion rates are low because of a malfunctioning ‘buy now’ button or a misplaced link in the email body. 

Plus, brand awareness cannot always be quantified. A (hard-to-capture) percentage of your email recipients may not be clicking the link — hence escaping your conversion rate metric — but could still be influenced to buy your product down the line. 

So, basically, conversion rates are super relative. 
Use nuanced reasoning before you judge any conversion rate in your SaaS business. 

4. Lead Conversion Rate

The percentage of website or event visitors who turn into leads in a given period is known as the lead conversion rate. But it could just as well apply to the success rate of any campaign where you know the number of people targeted and want to find out the success rate. 

How to Calculate Lead Conversion Rate

 Lead Conversion Rate = Number of Leads / Number of Visitors * 100

Your website’s benchmark for Lead Conversion Rate depends on how far you rely on the site to generate leads. 

If your website is one of many lead sources (among others, such as social media and pay-per-click or PPC ads), this number can be effectively low. However, if you’ve invested in long-form content, newsletters, and lead magnets to try and convert visitors to leads, you should expect a healthy lead conversion rate. 

Besides this, be sure to compare it against your next conversion goal. It could be sign-ups for free trials or other engagement signals on your product. 

If there’s a sharp dip in conversion rates later, you might want to check for what’s missing. 

5. Lead-to-Customer Rate

The final test of your marketing funnel — the percentage of leads that converted to customers. That’s the lead-to-customer rate. 

How to Calculate Lead-to-Customer Rate

Lead-to-Customer Rate = Number of Customers Gained Over a Period Number of Leads in the Same Period100

As a best practice, use the number of ‘qualified’ leads to measure this rate. This is the number of leads who showed an active interest in your product and are less of a shot in the dark compared to any other lead in your CRM. 

You can further calculate this number for each channel separately to get a better understanding of their efficiency as lead sources.

C. Engagement Metrics

6. Website Impressions to Clicks or Click-through Rate (CTR)

Impressions refer to the number of people who come across your website (via organic results or paid ads) while browsing on the internet. Website CTR is the percentage of those people who clicked on your website during a given period. 

How to Calculate Website CTR

Website CTR = Number of Clicks / Number of Impressions * 100

Ideally, measure the CTR for organic traffic and paid ads separately since search engines use completely different mechanisms on each to decide how your website appears to browsers. 

While your PPC CTR is correlated to your ad spending, your organic CTR is a more reliable metric of your site’s relevance to your target audience. And this depends on how well your website is optimized for search engines and its users. 

Read more on this in our detailed guides on B2B and B2C SEO.  

7. Average Page Views per Visit

A high CTR is of little use without a good level of engagement from your visitors. And the average number of pages they view per visit is a reliable measure of this. 

How to Calculate Average Page Views per Visit

Average Page Views Per Visit = Number of Pages Viewed in a Given  Period / Number of Website Visitors in the Same Period

A high number of average page views means visitors find a number of relevant pages during their visits, which prevents them from bouncing soon. 

However, there’s a twist. 

Counterintuitively, inordinately high average page views per visit (especially on the support portal) may not be great for engagement as it may indicate that people aren’t finding the information they’re looking for in the first shot, making for a bad experience. Alternatively, if they visit several blog pages, it could mean you have engaging and informative content.

And if you’re dealing with a high number of visitors from diverse backgrounds, a simple average won’t tell you anything. So try this metric by splitting demographics by age, location, or other parameters that your web analytics platform allows

8. Average Session Duration

A session is the duration of each visit paid to your site. Just like the number of pages people visited, their average session duration for a given period shows how engaging your website is. 

How to Calculate Average Session Duration

Average Session Duration = Total Duration of All Sessions in a Given Period / Number of Sessions in the Same Period

Of course, you want your target audience to have some quality time on your site. But this can’t be because they’re not finding what they came there looking for! 

A very long average session duration can indicate bad UX

That’s why you must look at the average session duration alongside the average page views. 

Visitors are spending a long time on your site AND going through a lot of content — now that’s a good thing.

(Psst…as long as they’re converting, too!)

9. Bounce Rate

Bounce rate refers to the percentage of visitors that leave your site after viewing just one page and not clicking anything during a given period. 

How to Calculate Bounce Rate

Bounce Rate = Number of Single Page Sessions in a Given Period / Total Number of Sessions in the Same Period * 100 

From the definition, you can tell the obvious. 
A high bounce rate is almost always a bad thing. 

But there’s more to it than that. 

For some pages and types of websites, a high bounce rate is a given. For example, dictionary or glossary pages, landing pages with limited text that send you to another page, etc. 

On average, though, a high bounce rate might indicate to Google that your website contains too much thin content. So, it’s good to keep an eye on this metric and even dig into the pages that contribute to it. 

10. Social Media Engagement 

Social media engagement measures the level of public interaction with a brand’s content across social media platforms. It encompasses user actions such as likes, shares, comments, and reposts, indicating how compelling and relatable the content is to the audience.

How to Calculate Social Media Engagement

Social Media Engagement = Total Engagements on a Post / Total Reach of the Post * 100

As a rule, any business would want a high social media engagement score. 

However, if your post goes viral for the wrong reasons, such as spreading misinformation or being based on false claims, the high engagement rate can backfire. This can lead to people mistrusting your brand.  

Additionally, even good engagement should amount to something. 

If you can attribute some revenue to the likes, shares, subscribes, and comments, you can then say that your social media efforts have been worth it

11. Email Open Rate

Email open rate is the percentage of recipients who open an email out of the total number of recipients for that mail during a given period. It’s a direct indicator of how well your subject line performs and is a good early evaluation for email campaign engagement.

How to Calculate Email Open Rate

Email Open Rate = Number of Emails Opened in a Given Period / Number of Emails Delivered in the Same Period * 100

Particularly for recipients on mobile devices, brevity is typically more effective. Therefore, keep your email subject lines to no more than 60 characters.

Further, personalized emails often boost open rates for many users and are particularly effective in transactional emails like birthday offers, post-purchase follow-ups, or promotional messages.

12. Email Click-Through Rate (CTR)

Email CTR is the percentage of email recipients who click on a specific link in your email to the number of total recipients who have opened the email in a given duration. This rate indicates how effectively the email content motivates your subscribers to take action.

How to Calculate Email CTR

Email Click-Through Rate = Number of Clicks in a Given Period / Number of Emails Delivered in the Same Period * 100

High email CTR is usually a positive indicator in email marketing, reflecting effective engagement and interest from recipients. However, sometimes, a high CTR could signal underlying issues or even be detrimental to a business.

A high CTR with low conversion rates (e.g., sales, sign-ups) might indicate that while the email content is good at encouraging clicks, it may not be aligned with what’s actually being offered on the landing page that’s linked to in the email. This discrepancy can frustrate users who feel the content they clicked on did not meet their expectations.

13. Unsubscribe Rate

An unsubscribe rate refers to the percentage of email recipients who unsubscribe or opt out of your mailing list after receiving an email during a given period. It helps assess the relevance of email content among subscribers.

How to Calculate Unsubscribe Rate

Email Unsubscribe Rate = Number of Unsubscribes  in a Given Period / Number of Emails Delivered in the Same Period *100

Is your email CTR low and unsubscribe rate high?

Try to cover the gap between the two with engaging email content and giving people incentives (discounts, tips, etc.) that can keep them from hitting the unsubscribe button AND encourage them to open the next email.  

Additionally, try to uncover the patterns. Unsubscribe rates can fluctuate based on the time of year. 

For example, unsubscribe rates might increase during holiday seasons when email campaigns are more frequent when users experience email fatigue, leading them to pare down their subscriptions.

If you’re tempted to remove the ‘unsubscribe’ button altogether from your email, stop right there. Not only could this be illegal in some countries, but it might be bad for your company’s reputation and urge people to report you as spam instead!

And here’s the nuanced bit.  

While a high unsubscribe rate is generally seen as negative, a very low unsubscribe rate is not necessarily positive either. It could indicate that users are indifferent and simply ignore the emails rather than unsubscribe. 

D. Performance and Efficiency Metrics

Performance and efficiency metrics help organizations measure business or revenue growth, optimize processes, and ensure resources are used effectively to achieve strategic goals. 

Track and analyze the following metrics to understand if you’re going in the right direction.

14. Channel/Campaign Return on Investment (ROI)

This metric indicates how much revenue your marketing campaigns generate for your business. It essentially measures your business’s marketing costs across different platforms against the revenue those marketing campaigns generate.

How to Calculate Channel/Campaign Return on Investment 

Channel/Campaign ROI = {(Number of Leads x Lead-to-Customer Rate x Average Sales Price) – Ad Spend or Marketing Costs / Total Ad Spend or Marketing Costs) * 100

Compare the ROI of different marketing channels, like email marketing versus social media, to determine which channel provides the best return on investment. This will help you decide where to invest their budgets for maximum effectiveness.

15. Channel/Campaign-Specific Cost Per Acquisition (CPA)

Cost per acquisition (CPA) is the total cost of acquiring a new customer through a specific marketing channel or campaign. It includes all kinds of costs, including salaries of the marketing team, monthly subscription costs of any marketing tool, and any other type of overhead.

How to Calculate Cost Per Acquisition

Cost Per Acquisition = Total Campaign Spend / Number of Acquired Customers

You can track CPA to gauge the financial efficiency of your marketing efforts by measuring the cost of acquiring a single customer. 

To ensure profitability, it’s essential that your CPA remains below the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)

It indicates that you’re spending less to acquire a new customer than the total revenue they are expected to generate over their relationship with your business. This ensures that your marketing investments are both profitable and sustainable.

Moreover, calculating CPA lets you compare the ROI of each channel individually. 

16. Share of Voice (SOV)

Share of Voice (SoV) quantifies your brand’s visibility in the marketplace compared to competitors, typically measured through advertising spend, social media engagement, or overall media coverage.

How to Calculate Share of Voice

Share of Voice = Number of Mentions of Your Brand / Total Number of Brand Mentions (yours + competitors’) * 100

While a high SoV is desirable, if the increased SoV is due to negative media coverage or poor customer feedback spreading rapidly across platforms, it can harm the brand’s reputation rather than bolster it.

Further, maintaining a high SoV might require a high marketing budget. If the costs outweigh the returns in terms of customer acquisition, it’ll prove detrimental to your business.

17. # of Keywords in Top 3 Ranks

This metric measures how many of your targeted keywords rank in the top three results on page 1 of search engine results pages (SERPs). This is an indicator of the effectiveness of your content marketing and SEO strategy.

How to Calculate the Number of Keywords in Top 3 SERPs
  • List the keywords for which you want your content to rank. These should be relevant to your content marketing strategy. 
  • Use SEO tools (like Google Search Console, SEMrush, Ahrefs, or Moz) to determine the current ranking positions of your target keywords in search engine results.
  • From your data, count how many of your target keywords appear within the first three results on the first page of search results. 

Regularly record these numbers to track changes and analyze trends over time to assess the impact of your SEO and content marketing efforts.

But don’t panic if your new content isn’t ranking as well as it should. 

Breaking through the top 10 positions on SERPs can take you anywhere between a few weeks to several months. It depends on your target keywords, their ranking difficulty score, the industry your business belongs to, and the existing competition.

18. % of Featured Snippets Acquired

This metric gives you the percentage of your brand’s targeted keywords or published pages that appear as featured snippets in the SERPs.

How to Calculate % of Featured Snippets Acquired

% of Featured Snippets Acquired = Number of Featured Snippets Acquired / Total Number of Keywords * 100

Featured snippets are worth chasing because they’re placed above the main organic search results and help your content get more eyeballs. 

There’s one unexpected downside, though. 

Featured snippets provide answers directly in the search results, which can sometimes satisfy your users’ queries without them clicking through to your website. This could lead to reduced website traffic and conversions.

19. MoM Growth

Month-over-month (MoM) growth is a measure of your business’ progress in terms of revenue, user acquisition, website traffic, and more. It essentially compares data or metrics from one month to the next. 

How to Calculate MoM Growth

MoM Growth = {(Metric You’re Measuring in the Latest Month – Metric You’re Measuring in the Previous Month) / Metric You’re Measuring in the Previous Month} * 100

Unlike quarterly or annual metrics, MoM Growth provides a more immediate feedback loop, allowing businesses to quickly adjust strategies and operations based on recent data.

But beware. Due to the different number of days in each month, MoM Growth can sometimes give skewed results. Plus, if looked at too frequently, it can paint a negative picture of growth. 

20. Backlinks

Backlinks (also known as inbound links or incoming links) are links on other websites that point to your website. They are crucial for SEO because they signal to search engines that others vouch for your content, which can improve a site’s ranking and visibility.

How to Calculate the Number of Backlinks

Tools like Ahrefs, SEMrush, etc., can provide comprehensive data on the number and quality of backlinks pointing to your website.

The mantra of “the more, the merrier” always doesn’t apply in the case of backlinks. Backlinks from a few reputable domains are of more value than several backlinks from low-quality, spammy sites.

In fact, you’d want to identify and disavow any harmful backlinks that might affect your site’s reputation and search rankings.

E. Content and Channel Metrics

Content and channel metrics offer valuable insights into the performance of your marketing materials and the platforms you use for distribution. 

Let’s delve into the key metrics worth tracking and highlight what they mean for your business:

21. Newsletter Sign-Up Rate

This metric measures the percentage of website visitors who sign up for your newsletter during a given period. It’s an indicator of how well your website encourages visitors to sign up for ongoing communications.

How to Calculate Newsletter Sign-Up Rate   

Newsletter Sign Up Rate = Number of Newsletter Sign Ups in a Given Period / Total Number of Website Visitors in the Same Period * 100  

A high sign-up rate often suggests compelling content or effective offers, but the real insight comes from subsequent subscriber engagement. For example, if high initial sign-ups do not lead to good open or click-through rates, it might indicate that while your incentives are attractive, your ongoing content does not align with subscriber expectations. 

So, if you realize you have high initial sign-ups but low CTRs, that means you need to adjust your content strategy or develop more targeted, personalized follow-up communications. This will be crucial for your long-term engagement and conversions.

22. Ad Click-Through Rate (Ad CTR)

Ad CTR measures the percentage of users who click on a displayed ad. It helps assess the effectiveness of online ad creatives and placements.

How to Calculate Ad CTR

Ad CTR = Number of Ad Clicks / Total Number of Ad Impressions * 100

A high Ad CTR suggests that your ads are resonating well with the target audience, but a deeper look can provide deeper insights. 

For instance, a high Ad CTR with low conversion rates might indicate that while the ad is effective at attracting attention, it may not be reaching the most qualified prospects. In some instances, it could mean the landing page is not effectively converting the traffic.

So, when optimizing the Ad CTR to improve the quality of traffic, optimize your conversion rate to achieve a healthy return on ad spend. Try A/B testing some ad and landing page content to figure out the best combination of approaches.

23. Ad Reach

Ad Reach refers to the total number of individuals who viewed your ads at least once during a specific time frame. This metric is crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of your advertising strategies.

How to Calculate Ad Reach

Ad Reach is typically reported by advertising platforms based on unique user identifiers. So, it isn’t a metric you’d have to calculate yourself.

It’s great to have a high Ad Reach, but first, consider its context. For example, if a significant portion of this reach is outside your target demographic (aka people who won’t buy your product), the effectiveness of the campaign in driving relevant engagement could be low.

F. Sales Metrics

These metrics provide essential data points for assessing the effectiveness of your sales efforts and driving business growth. As marketing and sales alignment is a must for any business, tracking these metrics along with the marketing ones we mentioned earlier is essential.

24. Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR)

Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR) represents the predictable and recurring revenue generated from subscriptions within a month. It’s essential for assessing the company’s financial health, forecasting future growth, and planning strategic initiatives.

How to Calculate MRR

MRR = Number of Active Subscribers * Average Revenue Per User (ARPU)

Alternatively, you can calculate MRR by summing up all monthly subscription revenues from customers.   

Note: There are various types of MRR, so the formula for calculating this metric can vary depending on the type of MRR you’re tracking.

MRR offers strategic insights into the stability and scalability of your business. A growing MRR suggests successful customer acquisition and retention strategies, while fluctuations can signal issues such as high churn rates or pricing problems. 

For example, a steady increase in MRR in conjunction with stable or improved customer retention rates indicates healthy business growth. However, if MRR growth is driven by price increases rather than new customer acquisition or expansion revenue from existing customers, it might not be sustainable in the long term. 

So, look under the hood of your MRR results before making any further decisions about product offerings, pricing strategies, and market positioning.

25. Average Contract Value (ACV)

Average Contract Value (ACV), also known as the Annual Contract Value, measures the average yearly revenue generated per customer contract.

How to Calculate ACV

ACV = Total Contract Value / Contract Length in Years

Interpreting the fluctuations in ACV can provide deeper insights into business health and customer behavior. For instance, an increasing ACV could indicate a successful move upmarket or improved sales of premium services.

However, it’s also important to consider the context of changes in ACV. 

Are the changes in ACV due to:

  • Shifting customer preferences?
  • More effective sales strategies?
  • Adjustments in pricing models?

26. Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)

Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) quantifies the total revenue a company can expect from a single customer account throughout their relationship. It help you gauge the long-term value of your customers and guides strategic decisions in marketing, sales, and customer service.

How to Calculate CLV

CLV = Average Order Value (AOV) * Frequency of Transactions * Customer Lifespan

A high CLV suggests that investing in customer retention is likely more profitable than acquiring new customers. This can influence the amount your company might spend on loyalty programs or customer service improvements.

However, a high CLV that comes at the expense of significant marketing and sales costs might not be sustainable. So, it’s crucial to balance acquisition and retention efforts to optimize CLV.

G. Customer Success Metrics

Customer success metrics offer invaluable insights into the satisfaction and loyalty of your customer base. 

Let’s explore the most critical ones to track and understand their significance for your business: 

27. Churn Rate

This metric measures the percentage of customers who cancel or do not renew their subscriptions within a given period. It’s essential for assessing customer retention and the overall health of your business.

How to Calculate Churn Rate

Churn Rate = Number of Customers Lost During the Period / Number of Customers at the Start of the Period * 100

While a low churn rate is generally desirable as it indicates good customer retention, there’s more to the metric than what appears at first sight. 

For instance, when a company is aggressively acquiring new customers, a low churn rate may appear as a positive indicator of customer retention. However, this rate can be misleading because the high number of new sign-ups can temporarily mask the dissatisfaction and departure of longer-term customers. 

So, while the churn rate seems low, underlying issues with customer satisfaction or product-market fit might still exist. This could potentially have a negative impact on the business once the pace of new acquisitions decreases.   

Conversely, a higher churn rate might not always be negative if it’s indicative of a strategic shift, such as phasing out lower-value offerings in favor of more profitable or sustainable ones.

Additionally, if the churn is primarily among customers who contribute minimally to revenue, refining customer segments might actually enhance overall business efficiency and profitability.

28. Customer Effort Score (CES)

Customer Effort Score (CES) helps you evaluate how easy it is for customers to interact with the service, product, or support functions of your company.

How to Calculate CES

CES = Average of Customer Responses on an Effort Scale (typically 1 to 7)

A high CES generally indicates that your service is user-friendly, potentially leading to increased customer satisfaction and retention. However, an average may not always reveal the whole truth — like an unusually high CES across multiple interactions.

For instance, let’s say customers frequently contact support for tasks that should be intuitive, like resetting a password or finding product information. In this case, a high CES could actually highlight deficiencies in your user interface or product design. 

This would suggest that improvements are necessary to make the initial user experience more intuitive.

29. Customer Satisfaction (CSAT)

Customer Satisfaction (CSAT) measures how satisfied your customers are with your products, services, or overall experience.

How to Calculate CSAT

CSAT = Number of Satisfied Customers (responses rating ’satisfied’ or ’very satisfied’) / Total Number of Survey Responses * 100

A high CSAT score generally signals that your customers are happy, which is crucial for maintaining high retention rates. However, it’s important to analyze these scores within the broader context of your business metrics. 

For instance, even if your CSAT scores are high, you should check them against your churn rate or repeat purchase rate to ensure they genuinely reflect customer loyalty and satisfaction. High CSAT scores with increasing churn rates might indicate that other factors, such as market changes, are impacting customer behavior.

30. Net Promoter Score (NPS)

This metric gauges customer loyalty and the likelihood of customers recommending your service or product to others.

How to Calculate NPS

To determine the NPS, you’d usually ask customers a question like: “On a scale from 0 to 10, how likely are you to recommend this product to a friend or colleague?” From there, you’d calculate the metric using this formula:

NPS = (Number of Promoters − Number of Detractors) / Total Number of Survey Responses * 100

The “Promoters” are customers with a rating of 9 or 10, and “Detractors” are those with a rating of 0 to 6. Those who give you a rating of 7 or 8 are regarded as “Passives.”

A high NPS is excellent, but you should also consider qualitative feedback from your promoters to understand what exactly drives their satisfaction and loyalty. 

Similarly, don’t ignore the detractors or passives just because your NPS might be high. Each detractor or passive score is an opportunity for you to identify areas of improvement and convert them into promoters.

H. Traffic Metrics

These metrics offer essential insights into the volume and behavior of visitors to your website or other digital assets.

In this section, we explore the crucial traffic metrics you should monitor and walk you through how to interpret them in various situations.

31. Organic Search Traffic

This refers to the visitors who come to your website as a result of unpaid search results in search engines like Google.

How to Measure Organic Search Traffic

You typically track organic search traffic using tools like Google Search Console or Google Analytics.

While high organic search traffic is a good indicator that your SEO efforts are on point, look beyond just the numbers.

If high traffic doesn’t come with proportionate conversions, you might need to reassess the relevance of your keywords or your conversion optimization processes on your site.

Further, traffic analysis tools can also give you insights into user behavior, such as their engagement rates, pages per session, and bounce rates. Seen together with these other metrics, organic traffic can tell you which direction you need to move your content strategy in. 

32. Paid Search Traffic

Paid search traffic encompasses the visitors that arrive at your website through paid advertising efforts, such as Google Ads.

How to Measure Paid Search Traffic

You can track paid search traffic using a tool like Google Analytics. It allows you to separate traffic by source and see how many visitors accessed your site through paid search ads.

While a high volume of paid search traffic indicates that your ads are successfully attracting clicks, ask if these visits lead to meaningful actions like sign-ups, purchases, or long-term engagement. If not, you could be spending a lot on clicks that aren’t driving revenue.

Additionally, given how PPC ads cost much more than pushing out organic content, knowing your ROI here is even more critical. 

33. Social Media Sourced Traffic

This refers to the segment of your website visitors that arrive through social media platforms like Facebook, X (formerly Twitter), Instagram, or LinkedIn.

How to Measure Social Media Sourced Traffic

You can track social media traffic using web analytics tools such as Google Analytics that let you segment traffic by source and show you the number of visitors that come to your site directly from social media links.

If a large portion of your visitors find their way via social media, it might mean these channels deserve more attention and even bigger budgets. Similarly, if you’re spending on social media campaigns without a significant ROI, it’s time to divert your attention elsewhere. 

But ask more questions about social media traffic. 
For instance, ask yourself this question:

Do these visitors stay on your site, explore multiple pages, and take desired actions like signing up or purchasing?

Sometimes, a certain social media platform could contribute disproportionately to your traffic but isn’t home to your target audience. For example, LinkedIn users might land on your website mostly because of job listings.

34. Email Marketing Traffic

Email marketing traffic refers to the visitors who come to your site through the links clicked in your email campaigns.

How to Measure Email Marketing Traffic

You can track email marketing traffic using data analytics platforms like Google Analytics, which allows you to segment traffic by source.

High email marketing traffic suggests that your emails are compelling and motivate people to click through to your website.

However, it’s essential for you to dig deeper to examine the conversion rates associated with your email marketing traffic. 

For instance, are these visitors completing desired actions like filling out forms, signing up for trials, or making purchases?
Analyzing behavior, such as time spent on the site and the number of pages visited, can also provide insights into how engaging and relevant your site content is to these visitors. This deeper analysis helps you refine your email content and targeting — ensuring that your campaigns not only attract visitors but also drive meaningful engagement.

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